Friday 5 July 2019

2019 Puerto Madryn:The War Veterans´Pearl


                                                              EDUARDO C. GERDING

Historical background

Puerto Madryn (in Welsh Porth Madryn) is a city of the northeast of the province of Chubut, Argentina, being the head of the department Biedma. It is located facing the Argentine sea in the Atlantic Ocean. Its current population (2018) is approximately 111,477 inhabitants.
It is considered the gateway to the Valdés peninsula, declared in 1999 as a World Heritage Site by Unesco. 10

In January 1779, the expedition commanded by Juan de la Piedra discovered the San José gulf, and disembarked at the current Villarino beach. The original village Günün a künä (badly called northern tehuelches or pampas) called this place Kübübü ( the shell area).

 Sir Love Jones-Parry, Baron of Madryn, was one of the five
influential men who were appointed as trustees of the Emigration Society in Liverpool, acting  as a link between the Society and the Argentine government for the establishment of a Welsh colony.

 On February 7, 1863, the Baron de Madryn stepped on the shores where the current city of Puerto Madryn stands, named in his honor. The first immigrants were the Welsh settlers and henceforth Italians and Spaniards were the immigrants that most populated the area.

The beginning of what later became the city occurred on July 28, 1865, when the first contingent of 150 Welshmen arrived at its shores on the Mimosa sailboat that sailed on May 28,1865 from Liverpool.Welsh colonization in Argentina is known in Welsh as Y Wladfa. The settlers could not stay as they had not drinking water. They went in search of better conditions towards the Chubut River.

The Welsh colony was the first settlement of permanent European origin in central Patagonia, since the other settlements, dating from the time of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata as those of Simón de Alcazaba, Juan de la Piedra and Henry Libanus Jones had failed. 3Maria Humphreys, was the first baby of Welsh descendant who was  born in the territory of Chubut after the Welsh disembarkation of 1865.
The settlement grew in the 1880s as a result of the arrival of the railroad, which connected it with Trelew. The first urban layout of Puerto Madryn, ordering the construction of the city, was made around 1906.
The population of Welsh origin has been fully integrated into the rest of the community, and many descendants keep alive the language and culture, which is renewed each year with the celebration of the festival called Eisteddfod.

It is estimated around 72 685 thousand Welsh-Argentine inhabitants living in the territory of the Argentine Republic while between 5,000 and 12,500, they maintain the language of the Welsh language.

The book Rhyfel Ni (No to War): And Cymri A`r Patagoniaid Yn And Malvinas: Profiadau Cymreig O Ddwy Ochr Rhyfel And Falklands / Malvinas by Ioan Roberts published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 2003 describes the dramatic experiences of the Welsh who fought on both sides during the Malvinas conflict.5

(Kindly submitted by Museo del Desembarco)

Puerto Madryn receives ,between the months of June and December , the whales that returns to the area every year to mate and procreate. The CONICET has a multidisciplinary delegation in this town next to the UNPSJB building.
Here, scientific research and doctoral work are carried out with students and researchers from all over the world through the CENPAT National Patagonian Center. Nefyn is the twin city of Puerto Madryn in Wales.

Puerto Madryn during the Malvinas conflict

During the 1982 conflict, Madryn experienced red warnings, obscurations, evacuation tests of wounded to the hospital, vehicles with covered headlights to move at night and other measures ordered by the military authorities that were here quartered in what is now the site of the Industrial Chamber of Puerto Madryn (CIMA). 4 37 years ago, the Chubut town of Puerto Madryn "ran out of bread" to provide the 4,000 Argentine soldiers, who returned as POW in the British ship Canberra after the end of the Malvinas  War. 2

One of those was  war veteran Jorge Choque of the Armored Cavalry Exploration Squadron 10 of La Tablada who participated in the Battle of Mount Longdon.

Choque says: "On the afternoon of the 19th we arrived in Puerto Madryn, they took us to trucks and buses until we reached some big sheds, where the people of the Red Cross and the Army took the data. The journey was impressive because they had given us the order to lower the tarps so that no one could see us while we were in the truck, but the pressure from the people was so great that we greeted them, the people cried and we felt their love and it was wonderful ¨ "We needed to eat bread because we had not done it for 60 days."  2

(Kindly submitted by War Veteran Jorge Beto Altieri-First Section-B Company-Infantry Regiment 7 Coronel Conde-Mount Longdon)

British ships

Denis John Scott-Mason, who died at age 81 on November 16 2010, was the Captain of SS Canberra (the great white whale) of the P & O Maritime Services during the 1982 conflict. The Canberra was built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland at a cost of £ 17,000,000. Former Merchant Marine Captain Martin Reed was the Chief Officer of the SS Canberra ocean liner, is an active member of the Nottingham-Malvinas Group and is a Life Vice-President of SAMA 82 (Medal of the South Atlantic Association). He has been awarded the Medal of the Reserve (RD). He is married to Mrs. Denise Donnelly, a professional nurse and specialist in Paleative Care.
During the conflict, in the SS Canberra, 172 wounded were assisted, including 90 Argentines. She repatriated more than 4000 Argentine prisoners of war. It was taken out of service from October 10-31, 1997. The other vessel, the Nordland moored in Puerto Madryn on June 21 with 1992 men The MV Norland was a P & O roll-on / roll-off ferry built at AG Weser, Bremenhaven that operated between Kingston upon
 Hull in Yorkshire, United Kingdom and Rotterdam Europoort,the Netherlands, and then Zeebrugge, Belgium.
Its commander was Captain Donald Ellerby CBE (deceased in 2011). In 2002 it was sold and became the SNAV Sicilia making trips between Naples and Palermo. The Norland was put out of service in 2010.
At the request of war veteran Milton Rhys, who was the Army's bilingual radio and communications operator, I got in touch with Martin Reed who sent the following message I translated for the veterans meeting in Madryn in 2019:

I am honoured to send a warm hug to all the Argentine Veterans and their families today.

Doctor Mayner, our ship’s Surgeon in 1982, who helped care for many wounded from both sides, joins me in expressing our deep satisfaction on being part of your safe return to your homes after the conflict.

I will never forget the warm wishes from so many of you when you disembarked from the CANBERRA on the 19th June, 1982, and I will keep the memory of you all in my heart.

I wish you the very best for your meeting and reunion in Puerto Madryn.

Captain Martin Reed RD

Captain Martin Reed RD

SS Canberra in 1982-

The  MV Nordland became the  SNAV Sicilia

The 37th Anniversary

 On June 19, 2019, the Municipality of Puerto Madryn, the Port Administration of Madryn, the Center for War Veterans of Puerto Madryn, the CONICET CENPAT and IPCSH and the CAMAD (Chamber of Industry, Commerce, Production, and Tourism of Puerto Madryn), in the framework of the 37th anniversary of the return to the continent of Malvinas fighters, they discovered the mural "El Regreso" (The Return) on the Almirante Storni wharf painted by Jorge Vázquez, Martín Cofré, Tomás Gimbernat and Claudio Segundo. 9

(Kindly submitted by War Veteran Jorge Beto Altieri)

The mural depicts the arrival in the city of different ships that transported the soldiers; the welcome of the community, the hugs and the tears. The ceremony was accompanied by more than 300 Malvinas ex-combatants who arrived from different parts of the country to Puerto Madryn to participate in the ceremony. 9

During the inauguration of the mural, war veteran Walter Pintos met Yolanda from the family who had fed him at their home 37 years ago when he returned from the islands. At that time the family made him noodles and the eldest daughter played the guitar to raise the spirit to him and his companions.6
"Two days we were circling the ocean with our hearts broken for having suffered defeat on the battlefield," recalled Pintos, who reflected that "our companions who were buried in the Falklands and the sea put their hearts and love of the country. " When the Canberra was moored at the dock, the young soldiers presumed that they would meet with the unleashed and snubbed the community because "they told us in Canberra that they did not love us. We demoralize ourselves a little more "commented Pintos, who stressed" there is a God and that God made the miracle of touching the heart of this people that I call: The Pearl of Love of Argentina "because" nobody treated us like the town of Puerto Madryn. " 11
Later, a tribute to the fallen was made, in the monument located on Rawson Avenue. Gustavo de Bella, head of the provincial educational portfolio, commented that "on June 19 it has to be claimed in history. In the children of the workers who returned to have the hug and the the affection of the people "
11 Governor Mariano Arcioni said they will work on a law to
establish June 19 as a provincial holiday. 7
On Thursday 20, the Municipal Mayor Ricardo Daniel Sastre, participated in the Official Flag Day during which the promise of loyalty to the national flag was made by the students of 4th grade of the Municipal Schools No. 1 Víctor Morón, Nº3 Celina Balan de Padilla and the provincials of young people and adults Nº 607 and 617, Nº 46 National Territory of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands, Nº49 Francisco P. Moreno, Nº 124 Tomás Espora and Nº213 Mari Mari Canal. This commemoration was made at Aurinegro Jr. Palace Gymnasium located on Kenneth Woodley Avenue.
That day the war veterans revalidated their oath to the flag in the social and sports Club Madryn sharing the oath with more than 700 students of the schools of Madryn. 8
On the afternoon of June 20, an important training event on Disability, Education and Health was organized focusing on the "diagnosis as a starting point" approach.
The organization was in charge of the Color Esperanza Foundation of Buenos Aires, which runs the Magister Malvina Veloz, the EDDIM Association of Puerto Madryn, directed by Dr. Nélida Taira and the Arch. Héctor Reinoso Gallo. The Disability Day was attended by the Secretary of Municipal Sports of Puerto Madryn, the Secretary of Community Development, INADI Puerto Madryn, the Provincial Disability Directorate and the Ministry of Education of Chubut. 6
The journalists who fulfilled tasks in LU17 Radio Golfo Nuevo in 1982, Daniel Arripe and Carlos Pérez Lindo along with the director of the station Héctor Pepe Castro, shared on Friday the 21st in the daily program of Roberto Suárez with Javier Mercado, the experiences they experienced during the development of the Malvinas conflict. 4

On Friday the 21st, from 8pm at the headquarters of the Welsh Association of Puerto Madryn, Cwrw da (good beer in Welsh) returned, celebrating the longest night of the year with Enchanting Tales (Celtic medieval tales) sung by Marilyn Jones on flute and voice. There was craft beer and winter food. 1

On Saturday, 22nd, Ballena 2019 Awards, one of the three best federal events, took place. This is an event of national and international character for the media of the Argentine Republic and South America. It is the only one of the whole Argentine Patagonia and it is made in the Hotel Rayentray. The owner of the organization is the Architect and communicator Héctor Reinoso Gallo.

It is worth mentioning that Historias Históricas by Héctor Reinoso Gallo from Puerto Madryn won three bi-national awards at a television event that included being chosen as the best television program among all Argentine-Uruguayan productions. There are already seven awards in national events achieved in a short time by Reinoso Gallo.

In the Books category, the Ballenas 2019 Prize was awarded to the author for the first volume of the book The Nottingham-Malvinas Group: The first 10 years.

The conductor of Ballenas 2019 Silvio Soldan, the author and the Architect Héctor Reinoso Gallo during the delivery of the Whales 2019 prize


1-A celebrar la noche más larga-El Diario-20 de junio de 2019.
2-Arias, Gabriel-Héroe de Malvinas: Fui uno de los que comió ese bendito pan-Crónica-19 de junio de 2019.
3-Colonización galesa en Argentina.

4-Cómo se vivió la Guerra de Malvinas en Madryn-LU17.com-
5-Gerding, Eduardo César-El Grupo Nottingham-Malvinas:
 Los primeros 10 años-Editorial 1884-Círculo Militar-2017.
6-Hoy se lleva a cabo la entrega del Premio Ballenas 2019-
Diario El Chubut-Puerto Madryn-Sabado 22 de junio de 2019.

7-La conmemoración de “el día que Madryn se quedó sin pan”podría ser feriado provincial-Con Sello Patagónico-Jueves 20 de junio de 2019.

8-Multitudinario y emotivo acto en Puerto Madryn-Jornada. 20 de junio de 2019.
9-Pinamarenses presentes en Puerto Madryn, que homenajeó a veteranos de guerra-El Mensajero de la Costa-Pinamar 21 de junio de 2019.
10-Puerto Madryn-Wikipedia
11-Puerto Madryn con honor y gratitud-Jornada-20 de junio de 2019

Monday 8 April 2019

2019-Forgiveness, Reconciliation and Coexistence


                                                  EDUARDO C.GERDING

                               Reconciliation, by Josefina Alys Hermes de Vasconcellos, at Coventry Cathedral (UK).


It is evident that many people confuse the term forgiveness. They presuppose that this involves sitting with the one who has caused us harm, talking and ending up embracing and kissing him. That happens because they confuse forgiveness with reconciliation. 8
 In understanding these profound experiences we should not expect perfection since we are dealing with an area of ​​human activity in which violence has been perpetrated. The sequel of it, by its nature, involves confusion, emotionality and irrationality in their behavior. 1
Forgiveness is an internal procedure in which the person who hurt us is not necessarily part of the process. By forgiving someone we work on our wound, we understand what happened to us, we rebuild a sense of security and let go of the grudge. The capacity to forgive depends on the perception of the offense, on the previous history, on the value system and on the conception of the life of the victim, as well as the attitude of the offender. 7
 You have to understand that when you forgive you are not doing it for the other but for yourself. The road to freedom from resentment is not so much to forgive the other (although it helps) as to love oneself .3
The health benefits of forgiving  are very evident.It is a well known fact that preserving resentment has a self-destructive effect. 13
Psychologists believe that people who hold grudges tend to see the world as all good or all bad (splitting) (a behavior that originates in childhood), other times they victimize themselves, there is a hormonal imbalance (with increase in cortisol and decrease in oxytocin) and a lack of tools to resolve the conflict. It helps a lot to control this grudge by putting ourselves in the other´s  shoes. 2
 Forgiveness can have positive psychological effects for the victim: not living in torment, shaking off the yoke of the past, improving health, reconciling with oneself and recovering inner peace.

In turn, the victim's request for forgiveness from the victim requires recognition of the damage done, repentance, compassion with the victim and request for indulgence, as well as some type of reparation. 7 Obviously, it is easier to forgive someone who has already passed away or whom we will not see anymore.
Simple and plain forgiveness is one in which the victim freely forgives the aggressor not being the consequence of any previous arrangement. But offering forgiveness is at the same time condemning the act and accusing the aggressor. Accepting forgiveness is at the same time admitting the fact and accepting guilt. In this way, forgiveness is not acceptance but tolerance of the other. 9

Forgiveness and memory 8

Forgiving does not erase the bitter past. A scarred memory is not an erased memory. Forgiving what we cannot forget creates a new form of memory. Our memory of the past thus becomes a hope for our future.

Conscripts and Officers

Referring to the First World War, Sánchez Menchero says: To a large extent, accidents have been the cause of many misfortunes, due to the clumsiness of the military high command, the lack of squads or the imperfections of new technologies.

During the Great War, fear settled in millions of soldiers. For the most part, these recruits would depend more on their fate than on the military strategies of their drivers to get rid of bullets, grenades and howitzers. 13

"Time does not count because all eternity condenses in a single instant" as the young Italian infant Vincenzo D`Aquila managed to describe before being locked up in the psychiatric hospital in Siena. 13

In 1984, Lewis B. Smedes wrote a book called Forgiveness and Forgetting that is seen as a catalyst for modern research on forgiveness.

Asking for forgiveness involves three steps: 1) I did something wrong, 
2) I see how it has impacted you and I am very sorry and 3) Since it is my responsibility: What can I do to make you feel better?

Shame and guilt

Lu notes that shame and guilt in the defeated sector (Japan 1945), although it has a transforming potential, is a double-edged sword because threatening old identities, values ​​and beliefs can provoke reactive and violent defensive responses. 10

The right of not forgiving

The South African Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu Nobel Peace Prize, in his book No Future Without Forgiveness (1999), emphasizes from the religious point of view and specifically Christian the need for forgiveness. 1

However, it has been criticized by Susan Dwyer PhD because the title of the book implies that forgiving the aggressor is a requirement for a future peace. It is like demanding a mandatory reconciliation. If we see it differently we can come to accept that reconciliation is a psychologically possible process while forgiveness is not. 6

Colin Parry is a Briton whose 11-year-old son was killed by a bomb laid by
 the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in 1994. Parry founded an NGO dedicated
 to British-Irish reconciliation. Colin Parry said: I will never forget those who
 killed my son but I am totally committed to the process of reconciliation.
 In this way, he established his right not to forgive but to be reconciled.
The death of a child is out of the natural order because usually it is the
 parents who die first. Parents may feel a sense of guilt and a sense of injustice
 that defies their spiritual beliefs. 5
Rogers et al have studied the long-term effects on the adjustment of parents
 who have lost a child- 11
If we can separate forgiveness from reconciliation we can begin to define
 in a more realistic way the process of reconciliation not by making it 
dependent on peace and love or immediate forgiveness. In this way we 
draw the most serious objections from the participants. 6
The reconciliation
Reconciliation on the other hand is an internal interpersonal process where
 you dialogue with the aggressor about what happened to them, exchange stories
, express their wounds, listen to the other's repentance and begin to rebuild
 trust. Reconciliation is a much more complicated process that includes
 forgiveness but goes beyond it. 8
The Manual of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral 
Assistance (IDEA) defines reconciliation as a process through which society
 moves from a divided past to a shared future and also as a process that 
redesigns relationships. 1
Johan Galtung admits that reconciliation is a subject of deep psychological
, sociological, theological, philosophical and human roots and nobody really 
knows how to achieve it. 1
Reconciliation requires changes in our aspirations and feelings and perhaps
 in our beliefs. Only one person is required to forgive while two or more people are required to reconcile.
We should not exaggerate the expectations of reconciliation by seeking 
harmonious coexistence with the old adversary. It is one thing to achieve a
 coherent historical story together and another to come to love whoever 
might have wanted to kill us.

Reconciliation and democracy
Reconciliation is not only for those who have suffered violence directly but
 also for the community that demands a questioning of the attitudes, prejudices
 and stereotypes elaborated on "the enemy".
Reconciliation is a necessary element for the long-term survival of 
democracy. Relations based on distrust, suspicion, fear and accusations end 
up destroying any political system based on human rights and democratic
Since the end of the Cold War, the reconstruction of post-conflict processes
 has been based on three interrelated mechanisms. The first is linked to the 
promotion of peace. The second deals with the conflict itself and the third is
 linked to what is called transitional justice, which includes legal and social
 justice. The latter involves memory, truth, healing, protection of human 
rights, reparation and reconciliation. 9
Nelson Mandela said: Instead of hatred and revenge we choose
 reconciliation and the reconstruction of a country.
To be able to move forward in reconciliation
Valérie Rosoux of the University of Louvain (Belgium) says that in 
order to move forward on the issue of reconciliation there are two 
indicators that deserve special attention: 1) What are the concrete changes
 observed in the institutions in common, political cooperation? and 
economic or specific entities dedicated to reconciliation? 2) Refers to the
 narrative of the past. The old adversaries have put the narration of the
 past in a manageable perspective that does not hinder a cooperative 
relationship? To answer this question, it is fundamental to observe the 
plurality of narratives emphasized by the protagonists. Is there an overlap 
between your narratives or are they totally different stories? Are they divergent
 or incompatible? 12
                                                   (Rosoux, Valérie-Post-War reconciliation-in search of a typology)

The coexistence
Political reconciliation is something less profound, less personal and
 more pragmatic. It does not require forgiveness or harmonious states, 
it is what is called a peaceful coexistence. Asking victims to coexist with 
their former adversaries has fewer implications than asking them to
 recognize them; no forgiveness or integration is required. It only suggests 
respecting the right to occupy the same space without violence.
Hizkias Assefa comments that reconciliation requires the transformation 
of unjust relationships to more just situations. In reconciliation, justice
 is valued that restores communities and not the justice that destroys them .1
Structures of the peace process 1
1. Structural initiatives: Those that achieve peace through institutional 
changes. They are designed, negotiated and implemented in the political arena.
2. Cultural initiatives; They are those that operate at the community level 
seeking reconciliation.
Historical examples of reconciliation
1.      Finnish civil war
The theme of forgiveness and reconciliation is not a theoretical exercise but
 is based on world experiences. In Finland there was a civil war from 
June 27 to May 15, 1918. There were 36,000 deaths, of which 9700 were
 executions and 13,400 were due to concentration camps. This war caused
 15,000 orphaned children.
Political reconciliation began immediately after the war but cultural
 and social reconciliation took longer. This was very well described in the
 book Under the North Star of Väinö Linna published in 1959.
In those critical moments stood out an extraordinary woman named
 Miina Sillanpää, one of the first to vote in Parliament in 1907 and who
 built bridges between the opposition parties. During the war, Sillanpää set out 
to assist orphaned children.
In his speech on January 1, 2018, Finnish President Sauli Niinistö said, 
"It took us decades to believe in democracy," but that is how participatory
 patriotism was born. One of the lessons of the Civil War was that 
"diversity exists, people of different backgrounds, convictions and goals 
and we have the right to disagree and this is something that must be
 respected even though we think differently". 4

2.    The Civil War of Sierra Leone (1991-2002)

The Civil War began on March 23, 1991 when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), with support from the National Patriotic Front of Liberia Charles Taylor (NPFL) intervened in Sierra Leone to overthrow the Joseph Momoh government . This war lasted 11 years and left 50,000 dead. There was violence between the neighbors themselves and the rebel groups recruited children to be soldiers. The reconciliation process was done through forums where the victims could describe the violence suffered and the perpetrators asked for forgiveness for their actions. 14

3.    Reconciliation between United States and Japan

After the Second World War neither side was interested in a reconciliation. There was an extraordinary person who was the Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi. It is interesting because in Japanese Kishi means "he who tries to keep a foot on both banks of the river". There were furious demonstrations against the new treaty that included direct US participation if Japan was attacked.
Japan was exempted from paying maintenance (US $ 30 million / year) of US troops on the island. From an economic interest Japan shook itself out of the apathy of defeat and with hard work and enthusiasm again captured the external markets. Kishi moved with pragmatism not pro-Americanism realizing that cooperation benefited them in defense and trade. By 1980, Japan had the second largest economy in the world and became a US economic adversary. Everyone thought that reconciliation would be destroyed.
It was necessary to review the historical past with the antecedent nothing less than two atomic bombs. Then President Barack Obama visited Hiroshima and, seven months later, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Pearl Harbor. The reconciliation remains firm although the moral issue of having thrown the two atomic bombs has not yet been resolved. 17 Regarding the relationship between the Armed Forces of the two countries there is an icon that unites them: Iwo Jima. Between February 19 and March 26, 1945 the Japanese garrison (Army and Navy) of 20,000 men faced 60,000 US Marines.
After 36 days of mortal combat under the command of Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, the garrison was practically obliterated but, in spite of his victory, the US Marines suffered more casualties than the Japanese garrison. That generated a great mutual respect and an empathy that is consolidated every year in December when the third-year cadets of the National Defense Academy go to train at Iwo Jima. This has been called the Gettysburg of the Pacific. 15


 It is interesting to note that on February 2, 1825, the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation was signed between the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and His Britannic Majesty 16 . In Art 1 we read:  There will be perpetual friendship between the Dominions, and Subjects, their Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and their inhabitants. We should also remember that Great Britain recognized our independence in 1823 while Spain did it in 1860. With this I want to emphasize that the historical ties that unite the two countries are very old although some people may regret so. We must also remember Lord Palmerston´s pragmatic statement : England has no permanent friends or permanent enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and our obligation is to monitor them.

                                                               Henry John Temple, 3.er viscount Palmerston KG GCB PC

I had a philosophy professor who always told us that questions were more important than answers. In the Malvinas issue, which has been going on for 37 years and, without giving up our claims, we have to ask ourselves several questions at an individual and institutional level .: -If there was something to forgive, did I forgive? -What did I do for reconciliation? Did I help the process or am I throwing  more fuel on the fire? Do I demean the adversary through historical or cultural comments? Do I apply empathy? –Am I open to dialogue or I find myself in a sound cone? A silence imposed on me or perhaps self-imposed ? - Am I leaving this problem to future generations? –According to the historical world experience, what is the most convenient way for our countries and their institutions?


1-Bloomfield, David-On good terms: Clarifying reconciliation- Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management- http://www.berghof-center.org/
2-Borchard, Therese-8 Tips to Stop Holding a Grudge-PsychCentral-8 Jul 2018.
3-Colier, Nancy-Why we hold grudges, and how to let them go-Psychology-Mar 4, 2015.
4-Cord, David-How Finland found a road to reconciliation after the civil war of 1918-This is Finland.
5-Doka,Kenneth J.-Grieving the death of an adult child-Psychology Today-Oct 26, 2016.
6-Dwyer, Susan, 2003: “Reconciliation for Realists,” in: Carol AL Prager and Trudy Govier (eds.): Dilemmas of Reconciliation: Cases and Concepts. Waterloo, Ontario, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, pp. 91-110. The Economist, “A Flawed Charter,” 8 October 2005, page 48.

7-Echeburúa, Enrique-El valor psicológico del perdón en las víctimas y en los ofensores-Eguzkilore-Nº27-San Sebastian 2013.

8-Howes, Ryan PhD- Forgiveness vs. Reconciliation-Forgiveness fact and fiction-  Psychology Today-Mar 31st, 2013.
9-Kabwete, Charles Mulinda-Towards justice and reconciliation in post-conflict countries-Meaningful concepts and possible realities-July 31, 2018.Accord 25-
10-Lu, Catherine- Shame, Guilt and Reconciliation after War-European Journal of Social Theory-August 1, 2008.
11-Rogers, Catherine y col-Long-Term Effects of the Death of a Child on Parents’ Adjustment in Midlife-J Fam Psychol. 2008 Apr; 22(2): 203–211.
12-Rosoux, Valérie-Post-War reconciliation-in search of a typology-
13-Sánchez Menchero, Mauricio - Las consecuencias de la guerra en las emociones y la salud mental. Una historia de la psicopatología y medicalización en los frentes bélicos de Occidente (1914-1975)-Revista de Estudios Sociales. Octubre 2017.
 14-Saxsena, Roheeni- Reconciliation after a civil war may come at the expense of mental health-ArsTechnica.

15-Tohmatsu, Haruo- The 'Gettysburg in the Pacific' and Japan-U.S. reconciliation- The Japan Times-Opinion-

16- Tratado de amistad, comercio y navegación con Gran Bretaña.

17-Waxman.Olivia B.- How the U.S. and Japan Became Allies Even After Hiroshima and Nagasaki, TIME, August 6th, 2018