Tuesday 23 January 2024

2024 The War Veteran and the Criminal Justice System

                                                           Hassn Almesien Unplash



                                                                                                                  EDUARDO C. GERDING

For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.’ (Matthew 25:35-46)


This article aims to become a point of discussion for society as a whole regarding the attitude of the criminal justice system towards war veterans who may be in prison currently or in the future.




War veterans imprisoned in the US


According to the US Criminal Justice Council (CCI), there are more than 181,500 war veterans incarcerated. 1

According to 2022 Crime and Justice News, one-third of military veterans were arrested and imprisoned at least once compared to less than one-fifth among civilians. 58% of war veterans in prison were men (and 38% women) who had been on the front lines. (Stainbrook, Hartwell, & James, 2016). 74% of male veterans in state prisons and 77% in federal prisons had had honorable discharges. 9

30% of US veterans in prison have a history of homelessness (Tsai, Rosenheck, Kasprow, & McGuire, 2014).


War veterans imprisoned in the UK


In 2022, 3.6% of the UK prison population were found to be war veterans. 6. However, according to an article published by The Independent in previous years, the number of soldiers in prison is three times higher than what the government officially reports. One in 10 prisoners are war veterans. 11. Approximately 13.6% (250,000) of the 1.85 million war veterans in England and Wales are women who require more mental health support and this figure is expected to increase. 7.The prisons with the highest proportion of war veterans were: The Verne, Haverigg, and Usk. 6


 Predisposing factors to crime

 People who volunteer to serve in the Armed Forces. They are more likely to be imprisoned than those who are not. (Culp, Youstin, Englander, & Lynch, 2013).

War veterans tend to have suffered more adverse events in their childhood (Katon et al., 2015). Of US war veterans in prison, 87% had traumatic events in their lives and 39% suffered from Post Traumatic Stress (Saxon et al., 2001).


 Factors predisposing to crime in the USA.

 The US Department of Veterans Affairs estimates that 15% of Vietnam veterans experienced Post Traumatic Stress and the same did 11 to 20% of those who participated in Iraq and Afghanistan. 3

A study revealed that war veterans in prison had a higher prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress and personality disorders than those who were not veterans, but there were no differences in terms of a history of major depressive syndromes, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or mood disorders. anxiety. (Bronson et al., 2015).

 War veterans with Post Traumatic Stress are 60% more likely to be incarcerated than the general population. In turn, patients with Post Traumatic Stress are more prone to drug addiction which leads them to be imprisoned. 3


The pre-existing characteristics of people entering military service could explain the differences in the types of crimes produced. A high percentage of war veterans in US prisons are detained for sexual offenses and a smaller percentage for property attacks and linked to addictions. (Bronson et al., 2015).


Predisposing factors in the UK

 A study in the United Kingdom revealed that people of low socioeconomic status are the most likely to enlist to escape poverty, unstable homes and unsociable company. These factors would be those that are linked to criminal behavior. For some criminologists, joining the Armed Forces has been a positive factor in the lives of these people. 13


The vulnerability of the prison population

 Women, the elderly and patients with HIV or Hepatitis C are considered vulnerable populations. However, only recently has the vulnerability of war veterans been taken into account. 5


Falklands War veterans convicted

 As of 14 January 2024, there were only two British war veterans in prison: Albert Patterson (then aged 65), a decorated former British paratrooper (SAS) sentenced to 15 months in prison by Nottinghamshire Court for possession of a weapon of war. (he had taken it as a war trophy). Released earlier as an exemplary prisoner. The other was Ian Lenaghan (61), a former British soldier sentenced to five years in prison for causing a gas explosion in a failed suicide attempt. The explosion destroyed a building and injured three people. 2,4,12

For the same date there were only four Argentine war veterans convicted of crimes against humanity during the military dictatorship: A former Argentine Army Colonel (72) (linked to the 9 Corrientes Regiment) wounded in combat at Top Malo House, decorated and convicted to life imprisonment. In 2020, he was granted house arrest, where he continues to serve his 25-year sentence. 8


A former Navy Captain (83) (former Chief of Communications of the Mar del Plata Naval Base). Life imprisonment, a former Senior Non-Commissioned Officer of the Argentine Army (82) (linked to the V Corps of the Bahía Blanca Army and the 181st Communications Battalion) with house arrest, a former Colonel of the Argentine Army (69) (linked to the V Corps of the Bahía Blanca Army and the 181st Communications Battalion).


In 2017, decree 1357/2004 established that war veterans who had been convicted of violating human rights, among others, could not be beneficiaries of the Malvinas Honorary Pensions.


Why it is important to focus on war veterans in prison

 Finlay et al. consider that there are three reasons that support the importance of focusing on war veterans in prison:

1.War veterans are a vulnerable population in terms of health and have different healthcare requirements (mental health, addictions, etc.) compared to civilians. The latter is due in part to the traumatic experiences of combat and other circumstances experienced during the service. 5

 The mortality risk of US war veterans released from prison is 12 times higher than that of the general population, with overdoses being the leading cause of death (Wortzel, Blatchford, Conner, Adler, & Binswanger, 2012). .

 2.The Veterans Administration and society as a whole have an obligation toward war veterans, which includes those who are part of the prison population.

3.Communities will be safer and resources will be saved if they focus on the treatment of war veterans.


10% of US veterans do not qualify for support from the Veterans Administration because they have been discharged for dishonorable conduct. As a result, they lack insurance, have restricted care options, and are subsequently unable to find housing or employment. (Mallik-Kane & Visher, 2008).


Problem approach

The approach to this topic is multidisciplinary and includes, among others, the area of ​​criminology, health services and psychology.

For the war veteran who has committed a criminal act, there is a tension between the stigma of identity as a criminal and the traditional recognition of his identity as a veteran. 10 The identity of the war veteran is not only perceived from others but is constituted by them, not only by the labels they apply to the veteran but by the reaction that occurs in him as a consequence of said labeling. 10

 Dr Emma Murray, Lecturer in Criminal Justice at Liverpool John Moores University says:

 "We are dealing here with men who have been rewarded for violent behavior, but punished for not showing up for work. They have lived by different rules to the rest of us, we must expect crime and when dealing with it be more understanding. I'm not saying they should get away with it, but I am suggesting a different justice system for former members of the military, similar to the system that operates in the military. ¨ (Veteran Treatment Manager, 2012)

¨These boys have been in war; They fought for their country; so we were proud of them. They have been trained to kill and have been celebrated for their extreme violence. They come from a culture that promotes “suffering in silence” and often the first time they receive the support they deserve is when they end up in the criminal justice system.¨ (Offender Manager, 2013) 10


“The criminal justice process can be understood in terms of “production of people”: once convicted, labels are applied to identify their participation in the criminal system. Edkins (2008) argues that this label disrupts the biographies of individuals with criminal records: the “offender” identity becomes a person's “primary status,” in which all other identities are consumed.

As such, individuals are defined by what they have done and, in many ways, are divided by social fractures that exist in society at large (e.g., race, disability, and gender). Identity management is inherent to the “production of people.” “Veterans’ offenses may be outweighed by their military past.” This requires a special approach to the criminal justice system..¨


It is common to hear: In that wing we have terrorists and there are sex offenders there, armed robbers tend to lurk there and veterans are around the corner. (Veterans in Custody Support Officer, 2012) 10

The paradigmatic case of Shawn Jensen

 Shawn Jensen was 17 years old and escaping an abusive foster family when he enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1966. A year later, Shawn was deployed to Vietnam, where he saw combat and was wounded twice. In December 1967, Shawn's superior infantry skills set him apart and he was trained as a member of the elite Reconnaissance Battalion, where he and a team of seven to eight men were sent on multiple long-range patrols deep into the jungles of the Southeast Asia to gather intelligence, often without reinforcements.Shawn again faced combat, danger and death. He was repeatedly exposed to Agent Orange. For his service in Vietnam, he earned multiple military decorations, including a Purple Heart.

Shawn returned to the United States after 13 months of combat. He met and married his wife, Rhonda, and attempted to rebuild his life after the war. After Shawn returned, he began having flashbacks of combat with enemy soldiers, as well as experiencing many other symptoms of what we now know as PTSD.

Shawn recognized that something was wrong with him. Together with Rhonda they tried to get help for what was then known as "shell shock."

Shawn described his instant flashbacks tied to particular combat situations. Shawn's invisible wounds continued to manifest, and in March 1973, while walking alone in the Arizona desert with his guns, he suddenly saw a figure rise from behind a tree and it took him back to Vietnam. Tragically, during this flashback he ended up killing a couple of teenagers who were enjoying the Arizona desert. A little over a month before the episode, Rhonda had taken Shawn to the local emergency room due to his mental health issues. The emergency room discharged him, describing his condition as "Acute Vietnam flashbacks. Psychiatric treatment at the VA hospital is recommended..." He was precisely waiting for this treatment when he killed the two people who were only a few years younger than he.

 Shawn received two life sentences for killing the couple and 

has been locked up in Arizona prisons since 1973. In his first 
nine years of  incarceration, he sought cognitive behavioral 
therapy. He studied and obtained two degrees.
 Shawn and Rhonda celebrated their fiftieth wedding 
anniversary last year. 3



1-Commission To Study Why So Many Veterans End Up In Jail, Prison- Crime and Justice News-Aug 23, 2022.

2-Condenaron a un veterano británico de la Guerra de las

Malvinas que provocó una explosión que destruyó un edificio-

INFOBAE-19 Agosto 2022

3-Dominguez-Ruiz,Marisol et al- Our Veterans Need Support,

Not Incarceration-ACLU


4-Ex combatiente inglés en Malvinas quiso presumir

de un "trofeo de guerra" y terminó preso-INFOBAE-Julio 1,2016

teransin Prison: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016-Bureau of Justice Statistics-March


5-Finlay, Andrea et al-A scoping review of military veterans involved in the criminal justice system and their health and healthcare-Health & Justice volume 7,Article number: 6 (2019)

6-Hawksworth,Daniel-Ministry of Justice-Official Statistics-Ex Service Personnel in the

prison population, England and Wales.

7-I don’t feel like that’s for me: Overcoming barriers to mental healthcare for women veterans-Forces in Mind Trust(FIMT)

-December 2023


8-Kasanzew,Nicolas-Batallar hasta caer desangrado: la epopeya del

comando Losito en el combate de Top Malo House-INFOBAE-Abril 3,2022

9-Maruschak,Lauraet al- Veterans in prison Inmatesm2016

Bureau of Justice Statistics ,March 30,2021

10-Murray,Emma- Post-army trouble: veterans in the criminal justice system-Center for Crime and Justice Studies.


11-Roberts,Genevieve-One in 10 prisoners is a former soldier, new research reveals. The

Independent, Saturday 14 July,2012

12.Robinson,Julian-SAS herowho was jailed for keeping his

Falkland gun as a souvenir walks free from 

prison after being released early from his 15-month sentence-

Daily Mail-August21,2016.


13-Simpson,LeanneK.Dr- The truth about the links

between military service and crime- The Conversation-April 27, 2016


Friday 5 January 2024

2024 The Silent Epidemic


                                  THE  SILENT EPIDEMIC


                                                        EDUARDO  C. GERDING

                                                                      All the lonely people

                                                                     Where do they all come from?

                                                                    All the lonely people

                                                                    Where do they all belong?

                                                                    (Eleanor Rigby-The Beatles-

                                                                    Lennon & McCartney)


In the English language, the desired and happy solitude (solitude) is distinguished from the other loneliness understood as isolation, deprivation and anguish, (loneliness). In Spanish we only have one word, which encompasses both meanings.

Robert Coplan and Julie Bowker published the book in 2013: A Handbook of Solitude: Psychological Perspectives on Social Isolation where they maintain that desired and happy solitude reinforces self-esteem, generates clarity and can be highly therapeutic.

 However, in this article we refer to unwanted loneliness and unwanted, suffering and radical social isolation; a silent epidemic that affects more and more people. 17

Loneliness and Social Isolation

Loneliness and social isolation are two different concepts.

Loneliness is a subjective emotional and social experience that is characterized by the discrepancy between the social relationships we have and those we wish to have.

According to a Meta-Gallup survey, worldwide (142 countries), one in 4 adults have reported feeling very lonely. Even 27% of young adults ages 19 to 29 reported feeling lonely. 18

Social isolation is an objective state that considers the integration of the individual in the social environment such as the frequency of their social relationships and contacts with social networks.

Increasingly scarce free time, teleworking, superficial communications, changing family meeting habits, societies that have lost a sense of community and increased longevity are some of the factors that lead to the rise in the isolation of people around the world. 2

Both concepts have in common that they are linked to an increase in blood pressure, a cognitive decline, depression, early dementia and mortality. 26.29

Loneliness and Mortality

The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that “unwanted loneliness is one of the greatest risks for the deterioration of health, and a determining factor that favors the entry of people who suffer from it into situations of dependency.” 2

The subjective feeling of loneliness increases the risk of death by 26%.

The negative health effects of unwanted loneliness are equivalent to the damage caused by smoking 15 cigarettes a day or being seriously overweight.

Loneliness and Mortality

The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that “unwanted loneliness is one of the greatest risks for the deterioration of health, and a determining factor that favors the entry of people who suffer from it into situations of dependency.” 2

The subjective feeling of loneliness increases the risk of death by 26%.

The negative health effects of unwanted loneliness are equivalent to the damage caused by smoking 15 cigarettes a day or being seriously overweight.

Loneliness increases the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and premature deaths by 30% 20 and also weakens the immune system. 2

Social isolation - or lack of social connection - and living in isolation turned out to be even more devastating to health than that of a person who feels lonely. These factors respectively increase the risk of mortality by 29% and 32%.

These figures exceed those of other psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, which are associated with an increased risk of mortality by only 21 percent. 6

Unwanted loneliness in Europe

 13.4% of Spaniards feel unwanted loneliness and, of all population groups, people between 16 and 24 years old are the most affected. 21.9% of these people claim to feel unwanted loneliness and are up to five points ahead of the next most affected population group, people between 25 and 34 years old. This loneliness is even more accentuated at Christmas. 28

Unwanted loneliness costs Spain more than 14 billion euros each year.

In Germany, in the period 2020/2021, 7.8% of women and 8.8% of men reported suffering from unwanted loneliness. According to Wurm et al, 8.3% of the German population aged 50 or over suffer from loneliness. 30

More than 41 million Europeans feel alone. For those affected it means suffering. These people feel ashamed and do not dare to talk about their loneliness. (Daniel Kurt Boehm, Minister of Loneliness of Germany)

In 2015 Eurostat revealed that 6% of adults in the European Union had no one to turn to if they needed help and this peaked at 13% in Italy and Luxembourg. 23

Single-person households

In Germany, single-person households increased from 30% to 35%.

The higher the income level, the higher the percentage of single-person households.

In Brussels (Belgium) half of the households are made up of people who live alone and represent 24% .Brussels population:1,217,000. If at the beginning of the 80s, this group consisted mainly of widows and widowers, today, people who have never married or started a family constitute the largest group, 38% of the total, according to data collected by the Belgian statistical institute. In the case of men, this percentage increases to 44.5%. Widowers and widows are now the second group (30.9%) and the separated the third (22.7%). 19

In Japan, 40% of households are single-person.

In Argentina, single-person households, which were 10% in 2000, rose to 18% in 2010. In CABA they represent 30% and in Santiago del Estero 10%.17

In Argentina, life expectancy went from 69.5 years in 1980 to 76.7 today. This stretched the time that parents live without children, which can extend up to two or three decades and lead to a lonely old age in the event of the early death of one of the spouses, usually the man (Argentine women live on average four years longer than men). 17

In Argentina, one in five older people lives alone, according to the UCA report. According to the 2010 Census, 10.2% of the Argentine population is over 65 years old; one of the countries with the largest number of elderly people in Latin America. It is estimated that in 2025 this population will reach 12.7% and in 2050 it will reach 19%. By then, the population of people over 65 years of age will exceed in proportion the number of children and adolescents under 15 years of age. 6

Statistics indicate that a quarter of the population says they have no one to talk to. 15


Loneliness in war veterans

In the Malvinas conflict, which began on April 2, 1982, 23,428 combatants participated on the Argentine side, according to official data from the Ministry of Defense of the Nation. The conscripts are currently 60 years old and the rest of the participating cadre personnel are even older. Hence the relevance of the topic.

In the case of Great Britain, approximately one in eight adults in the population is a war veteran which adds up to 1.7 million people. 25

According to the 2021 Census of the 1.85 million war veterans in England and Wales, 13.6% were women and 86.4% men. 

One third (31.8% or 589,640) were war veterans aged 80 or older. 94.2% of war veterans were born in the United Kingdom and 2.1% were born in other Commonwealth nations. In Nepal 0.6% were born and in Ireland 0.5%. 5

British military charities have revealed that loneliness and social isolation are prevalent for war veterans of all ages. 27.29

Ypsilanti et al from the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom have observed that unwanted loneliness is a prevalent phenomenon among war veterans. 44% of them have experienced loneliness at some point in their life and 10.4% have suffered from loneliness frequently. They also found that high levels of Post Traumatic Stress were linked to reports of unwanted loneliness. 9,31

C. Leslie et al's study of loneliness in British war veterans emphasizes that the Ministry of Defense understands the severity of these issues and their consequences. 14

 As many British war veterans live in rural areas, transport and access to various containment activities will need to be taken into account. 14

In the US, Straus et al conducted a study on the health and resilience of 4,069 war veterans (average age = 62 years) in the period 2019-2020. They were able to verify that 56.9% felt lonely at some time and 19.7% frequently suffered from loneliness. 24

A study conducted at Syracuse University revealed that half of US War Veterans perceive, once they retire from military service, that they do not belong in society. This perception of lack of belonging is associated with a feeling of loneliness or social isolation regardless of family support at home. 11

For many veterans, service is not just a job, it is a lifestyle, a sense of identity and purpose. Therefore, the transition to the civilian sphere can create an identity crisis. While in service they had a structured life: they were told when to eat, what to eat, how to dress and what to do. A famous saying goes that military work is simple: All that is required to succeed is to be in the right place, at the right time, and in the right uniform. 11


A US Veterans Administration study found that among five forms of social connection, loneliness was linked to higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Loneliness was also related to lower personal levels of health care and asking for help.

Loneliness Ministry

In 2018, then-British Prime Minister Theresa May appointed Tracey Crouch as the first-ever head of a Loneliness Ministry (later replaced by Diana Barron), stressing that the role “will address one of the biggest challenges in the world.” modern public health. 7

At the time the decision was announced, half of Britons over 75 (about 2 million) were living alone. 17

“How am I so alone when there are so many people around?” This was a woman's distressed call to the British Ministry of Loneliness's helpline and reveals one of the great paradoxes of the time: never have people had so many possibilities to communicate and never felt so alone. 2

In the United Kingdom, in the first stage a budget of 5 million pounds was available, which was distributed among 840 entities in charge of connecting single people in small groups with various interests, many of them recreational.

In February 2019, Japan created its own Ministry of Loneliness and Isolation. 2

In 2017, the Japanese National Institute of Social Security and Population Affairs conducted a survey on life and mutual support, which found that 15% of older adults had, on average, a conversation every two weeks.

In Japan, a Cabinet Office survey found that half of those over 60 were afraid of ending their days alone and abandoned. 2

he Minister of Loneliness and Isolation, Tetsushi Sakamoto, focused his greatest concern on the local phenomenon known as kodokushi (“dying alone”), which is the increase in cases of people, generally over 60 years of age, who die at home. and they are found several days or months later because there are no close friends or family to care for them. 2

According to an investigation carried out by the German newspaper Tagesspiegel, 300 people die a year in their apartments without it being known for several weeks. It's not for nothing that they call Berlin "the capital of loneliness." The number of Germans between 45 and 84 years old who reported feeling lonely increased by 15%. 21

 Addressing the problem of loneliness

The first of the pieces of advice suggested by the WHO is the need for societies, and in particular people close to those who live alone, to recognize the problem of social isolation. It is essential to identify people at risk through health and social services and implement interventions that help them socialize their lives. 2

The latter can be achieved through the action of the War Veterans Centers. It is also very interesting to see this problem through the military neighborhoods. 16

The century of loneliness

English economist Noreena Hearts points out that the type of mass communication, such as chat messages or social networks, usually results in superfluous conversations that do not achieve the sincere interaction of a personal encounter, and raises the need to recover the sense of community to return to human ties. 12

The German community system

The system devised in Germany consists of community centers for all ages equipped with infrastructure prepared for the meeting of all generations in the neighborhood. In this broad exchange of interests, older adults teach young people cooking recipes, share stories with children or explain traditional craft techniques, while young people help them become familiar with computers and smartphones. 2

 • Sällbo's experience in Sweden

In Helsingborg, a town in southern Sweden, since November 2019 the commune has implemented a collective living experiment that seeks to connect young people and lonely retirees in a building with apartments owned by the community, known as Sällbo (life in company). It is a housing complex whose residents sign a contract by which they commit to spending at least two hours a week sharing time with other inhabitants of the condominium. 13

·       The Sidewalk Talk of California (USA)

Sidewalk Talk, intended for people who need to communicate with others to approach chairs arranged on sidewalks to talk with “listeners” trained to listen to them. The idea came from therapist Tracy Ruble and some friends from the Californian city of San Francisco. 22

Telecare Service of the Argentine Red Cross

In Argentina, the Red Cross has the Telecare Service, which is a 24-hour accompaniment service with an emergency button. You must install an application on your cell phone. The service is personalized and adapted to the needs of each person. Scheduled follow-up calls, reminders for medications or medical appointments, and assistance in case of emergencies . 4

Personalized support 24 hours a day

Immediate emergency response

Monthly follow-ups, reminder of appointments and/or medications

Security and peace of mind for the user and their family

GPS location

National coverage

Care and monitoring against COVID-19


The Senior Center Without Walls is a similar organization that provides all benefits for seniors in the Burke/West Springfield and Great Falls communities of the United States.


APP Meetup Argentina

They connect people according to their affinities. It proposes events and activities in nearby places according to certain interests, which can range from cinema to gastronomy.

• Beekeeping and gardening for war veterans

U.S. veterans find peer support essential after leaving active duty to maintain a sense of identity and purpose. However, providing them with an opportunity to contact each other is not enough. Communities must be built that bring together veterans while simultaneously targeting those goals they miss from the military sphere. They must be provided with a feeling of belonging and inclusion, thus mitigating the feeling of loneliness.

 In these communities, socialization, learning, physical activities and opportunities for them to develop their skills should be emphasized. Beekeeping and gardening have proven extremely effective in connecting war veterans with each other and giving them a sense of purpose. 11


  UK Loneliness Action Group

The Loneliness Action Group is a network of 59 organizations co-led by the British Red Cross as part of the strategy to combat loneliness.

In October 2018, the British government launched its Loneliness Strategy in England in a document titled A Connected Society: Tackling Loneliness and Social Isolation.

The British entity Campaign to end Loneliness (who published scales to evaluate loneliness), advises the following: 1,3,10

1.Contact your friends.

2.Invest in new relationships such as volunteering.

3.Small actions make a difference: Say hello to your neighbor or have informal chats with merchants.

4.Maintain contacts online. There are courses to update yourself.

5. Don't keep things to yourself. Discuss your issues.

6.Find out what type of support (medical, psychological, etc.) exists in your community.

If you prefer to manage alone:

1.Plan to do activities during the week that you like (gardening, reading, music)

2.Spend time in contact with nature.

3.Prioritize your health: eat well, sleep well, and stay active.

4.Focus on the good things in life.



1-Assesing progress in tackling loneliness. British Red Cross.


2-Blanco,Eduardo-Como combatir la soledad una epidemia silenciosa que empieza a preocupar a los gobiernos.INFOBAE,14 Febrero 2022.


3-Campaign to End Loneliness-


 4-Cruz Roja Argentina-Servicio de Teleasistencia.


 5-Characteristics of UK armed forces veterans, England and Wales: Census 2021-Office for National Statistics.


6-Chueke Perles, Daniela- Soledad: una epidemia silenciosa que puede detenerse-La Nación,14 de marzo, 2017.

 7-Daley, Jason- The U.K. Now Has a “Minister for Loneliness.” Here’s Why It Matters-Smithsonian Magazine.


8-Exploring Military Widows’ Experiences of Social Isolation and Loneliness-Northumbria University.



9-Fox, Robert et al- Posttraumatic stress disorder and loneliness are associated over time: A longitudinal study on PTSD symptoms and loneliness, among older adults- Psychiatry ResearchVolume 29  9,  May 2021,


10-Government’s work on tackling loneliness-Department for Culture, Media and Sport and Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport. Published 27 May 2022.



11-Graham, Emily-Combating social isolation and loneliness among veterans after separation from Military Service.Syracuse University,Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public Affairs-Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion & Population Health-Issue Brief #59-December 6,2022.

12-Hertz, Noreena-El Siglo de la Soledad-Ediciones Paidós.


 13-Jurado, Marta- Sällbo, el experimento de vivienda sueco que une a mayores de 70 años, jóvenes y refugiados.65 y mas.com-14 de enero,2023.



14-Leslie c.et al-Social isolation and loneliness of UK veterans: a Delphi study -Occupational Medicine, Volume 70, Issue 6, August 2020, Pages 407–414,

15-Manes, Facundo-Pensar la Argentina. La epidemia de la soledad. Otro de los males de este siglo. Diario Popular.


16-Meadoes, Sarsah et al-Exploring the Association Between Military Base Neighborhood Characteristics and Soldiers´ and Airmen´s Outcomes.Rand Army Research Division-Rand Project Air Force.


17-Natanson, Jose-Un Ministerio para la soledad-Le Monde Diplomatique-Edicion 272-Febrero 2022


18-Nicioli, Taylor-The loneliness epidemic: Nearly 1 in 4 adults feel lonely, new survey finds. CNN October 24,2023. https://edition.cnn.com/2023/10/24/health/lonely-adults-gallup-poll-wellness/index.html

19-Oliveras, Eliseo-La ciudad de las almas solitarias-El Periodico.11 de mayo 2007.



20-Origlia, Gabriela-La soledad no deseada ya es un problema de salud publica a nivel mundial. La Nación-30 de enero 2023.


21-Schumaker, Elizabeth- Berlin, capital of loneliness-DW-10/17/2019. https://www.dw.com/en/berlin-capital-of-loneliness/a-50867492

22-Sidewalk Talk-



23-Stefanello,Viola- Lonely in Berlin: German capital mulls Commissioner for Loneliness-Euronews. Oct 18,2019

24-Straus,Elizabeth et al. Behavioral Epidemic of Loneliness in Older U.S. Military Veterans: Results From the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study- Am J Geriatr Psychiatry-2022 Mar;30(3):297-310.


25-Tales of military life help veterans overcome loneliness-Lancaster University-8 Nov 2018. https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/news/tales-of-military-life-help-veterans-overcome-loneliness

26-Thomas,Toby- Alcohol misuse and loneliness ‘increase risk of early-onset dementia’-The Guardian- Tue 26 Dec 2023.

27-Tsur, Noga et al- Loneliness and subjective physical health among war veterans: Long term reciprocal effects. Social Science &Medicine Volume 234, August 2019, 112373


28-Una de cada 10 personas que padecen soledad no deseada en España sufren más este aislamiento en Navidad-INFOBAE,24 de diciembre.

 https://www.infobae.com/espana/2023/12/24/una-de-cada-10-personas-que-padecen-soledad-no-deseada-en-espana-sufren-mas-este-aislamiento-en-navidad/embre 2023.

29-Wilson, G et al- Loneliness and social isolation of military veterans: systematic narrative review. Occupational Medicine, Volume 68, Issue 9, December 2018, Pages 600–609.

  30-Wurm, Susanne et al- Prevalence of loneliness among older adults in Germany- J Health Monit. 2023 Sep 20;8(3):49-54.


31-Ypsilanti, Antonia et al-Disgust is Associated with Loneliness, Mental Health Difficulties,amd Eye-Gaze Avoidance in War Veterans with PTSD-Front.Psychol.,30 October 2020-Volume 11-2020.